BONE & ELECTROLYTE LEVELS
A mineral necessary for many important bodily functions, including bone formation, muscle contraction, and blood clotting. In addition, calcium is involved in maintaining the stability of nerve cells. Abnormal blood calcium levels are associated with bone diseases and a variety of other conditions.
Chloride helps maintain the normal amount of water and the acid-base balance in body fluids. In general, the serum level of chloride is closely associated with the level of sodium. Chloride levels higher or lower than normal can be associated diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and adrenal gland.
Helps regulate energy production in the cells. This element is found primarily inside the cells. A low magnesium level in the blood may indicate severe malnutrition, severe diarrhea, alcoholism, or excessive use of diuretics (water pills). High values may indicate kidney disorder.
An element widely distributed throughout the body. Approximately 85% of the body’s phosphorus is found in bone in a complex with calcium. Blood phosphorus levels fluctuate during the day and are affected by your diet and some antacids. Abnormal blood phosphorus levels are found in kidney failure, some bone diseases and several other conditions.
Potassium is necessary for the proper function of nerve tissue and in heart and muscle contraction. Levels higher or lower than normal can be caused by various conditions, including diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and adrenal gland.
Sodium helps maintain the normal amount of water and the acid-base balance in body fluids. Serum sodium levels higher or lower than normal can be caused by various conditions, including diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and adrenal gland.
HEART & KIDNEY FUNCTION
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
BUN is the primary waste product produced by the liver during the breakdown of proteins. More than 90% of the urea is excreted by the kidneys. A variety of kidney diseases can result in an increase in the BUN level. Diets low in protein and high in carbohydrates may be responsible for low BUN levels.
A waste product released from muscle tissue and excreted by the kidneys. The creatinine test is frequently used to assess kidney function. Elevated levels of serum creatinine may indicate kidney disease.
Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate or eGFR
This test measures how well your kidneys are filtering your blood. A low eGFR indicates decreased kidney function.
Lactate Dehyrogenase (LDH)
An enzyme found in all tissues in the body so that a high level in the blood can be the result of many different diseases. Slightly elevated levels in the blood are common and usually do not indicate disease. The most common sources of LDH are the heart, liver, muscles, and red blood cells. Any damage to cells will raise the LDH level in the blood.
(See also Ferritin - ordered separately, page 8)
Iron Binding Capacity (IBC)
IBC measures the blood’s capacity to bind iron with transferrin, a blood protein that carries iron in the blood. A low IBC suggests malnutrition or iron excess. A high IBC suggests iron deficiency.
Iron is essential to the formation and function of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. Low iron levels may indicate iron deficiency anemia, internal bleeding, or other conditions. High levels may indicate hemochromatosis.
Transferrin Percent Saturation
This calculation is a ratio of serum iron to total iron binding capacity. It is a simple way to compare the amount of iron in the blood to the capacity of the blood to transport.
The Unbound Iron Binding Capacity is a calculated test. It is calculated from the Serum Iron (IRN) and the Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC)
CHD Risk, Estimated
The CHD (Coronary Heart Disease) risk calculation is based on a scoring system that grew out of the Framingham Heart Study. A person’s risk (chance) of developing CHD in the next 10 years is calculated based on the cholesterol level as well as other non-cholesterol risk factors.
Cholesterol, Total (TC)
A measure of total cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol is the type of fat that can clog your arteries causing heart attacks and strokes. Studies have established that total blood cholesterol levels may be independently and positively correlated with risk for coronary heart disease.
Your total-cholesterol-to-HDL ratio can be figured out by dividing your total cholesterol number by your HDL cholesterol number.
High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) “Good” Cholesterol
There are several types of cholesterol and each is attached to a protein carrier, thus the name “lipo” (fat), protein. High Density Lipoprotein is called “good” or “healthy” cholesterol. This type of lipoprotein carries cholesterol away from the vessel walls. A high level is associated with a lower risk of heart disease and stroke. A heart healthy diet, losing weight and regular exercise help to increase HDL.
Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) “Bad” Cholesterol
Low-density lipoprotein is called “bad” or “lousy” cholesterol. This type of lipoprotein carries cholesterol into the blood vessel walls. High levels of LDL may be associated with an increased risk for heart disease and stroke. A heart healthy diet, losing weight and regular exercise help to decrease LDL.
Triglycerides are another type of fat found in your blood. When you eat, your body converts any calories it doesn’t need to use right away into triglycerides which are stored in fat cells. Although it’s unclear how, high triglycerides can contribute to increased risk of heart disease and stroke.
Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) “Bad” Cholesterol
Very low-density lipoprotein is also considered a “bad” cholesterol. About half of a VLDL particle is comprised of triglyceride. Like LDL, VLDL has been associated with the transport of cholesterol into blood vessel walls and high levels can increase risk of heart disease and stroke. A heart healthy diet, losing weight and regular exercise help to decrease VLDL.
Alkaline Phosphatase is an enzyme found in almost all body tissues, with highest levels observed in the intestine, kidney, bone, liver, and placenta. Measurements of serum alkaline phosphatase are thought to be particularly useful in the evaluation of liver and bone disease. Minor increases in the level of alkaline phosphatase are sometimes observed during the normal aging process.
Alanine Transaminase, ALT (SGPT) / Aspartate Aminotransferase AST (SGOT)
These enzymes are found mainly in the liver. Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or injured liver cells leak higher than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes into the bloodstream which can result in elevated liver enzymes on blood tests. Low values are not generally considered significant.
An orange-yellow bile pigment formed during the breakdown of hemoglobin. Bilirubin is transported by a blood protein (albumin) to the liver for excretion in the feces. Elevated levels of serum bilirubin are often associated with liver disease, bile duct obstruction, hemolytic (red blood cell breakdown) disease, and prolonged fasting.
Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GTT)
An enzyme that is primarily found in the liver. Drinking too much alcohol, certain drugs, liver disease, stress, physical exertion, some common medications and bile duct disease can cause high levels of GGT in the blood. High values should be evaluated by your health care provider.
THYROID & OTHER
This test is a snap shot of the amount of glucose or sugar in your blood at the time your blood was drawn. It is a primary source of energy for bodily functions. Glucose levels are useful in diagnosing and managing diabetes.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
TSH is a hormone secreted in the brain that responds to thyroid hormone levels in the blood. When thyroid hormone levels are high, TSH is low and when thyroid hormone levels are low, TSH is high. This is a test most commonly obtained to assess thyroid function.
Elevated serum uric acid has been found to occur in kidney failure, gout, dehydration, endocrine disorders, and other disease states. Certain drugs can also cause uric acid levels to be elevated.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
A test to check many kidney and lung disorders as well as day to day bodily functions.
Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio
The calculated ratio of levels of these two serum proteins. A low A/G is found in certain liver diseases, kidney disease, and inflammation, as well as other disorders.
The major protein of blood that is made in the liver. Albumin plays an important role in maintaining the plasma of blood in the blood vessels, transporting substances, and in nutrition. Decreased albumin levels may be associated with liver disease and indicate general health and nutritional status.
One of the main protein groups found in blood. The level of serum globulin is often elevated in various diseases.
The second most common substance in blood. Serum proteins have many functions, including the transport of other substances, immune defense and inflammation defense. Serum protein levels are useful for evaluating nutritional status, infection and other disorders.
HEMOGRAM CBC WITH DIFFERENTIAL
Red Blood Cell Count - RBC
A red blood cell count determines the number of red blood cells in the body. RBCs contain hemoglobin, which carries oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. The most common cause of low RBCs is anemia but could be caused by other factors. A high RBC could indicate a number of other medical conditions.
Hemoglobin is a protein in RBCs the carries oxygen from the lungs to the body’s tissues and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. Iron is an essential component of hemoglobin and low iron levels may result in a low hemoglobin level or iron deficiency anemia. High hemoglobin levels can be caused by a number of conditions.
Hematocrit is the ratio of the volume of RBCs to the total volume of blood. A low hematocrit may indicate low RBCs, vitamin or mineral deficiencies or recent or long-term blood loss. A higher than normal hematocrit can indicate dehydration, a disorder such as polycythemia vera, lung or heart disease among other conditions.
Mean Corpuscular Volume measures the average size or volume of red blood cells. If the RBCs are too large or small, it may indicate a blood disorder.
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin reflects the average mass of hemoglobin per red blood cell.
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration measures the average concentration of hemoglobin inside a single red blood cell.
White Blood Cell Count - WBC (with Differential)
A white blood count determines the number of white blood cells in the blood. An abnormal white blood cell count may be caused by an infection, autoimmune disorders, certain medications or other conditions. The WBC differential measures the different types of WBCs: Basophils, Eosinophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, and Neutrophils.
Platelets are tiny blood cell fragments that help your body form clots to stop bleeding. If one of your blood vessels gets damaged, it sends out signals that are picked up by the platelets. The platelets then travel to the site of damage and form a clot or plug to repair the damage. Therefore, a low platelet count may be the cause of a bleeding disorder. A high platelet count be caused by a number of conditions.
PSA Screening for Men
Prostate Specific Antigen
A protein produced by normal as well as cancer cells of the prostate gland. PSA is used as a tumor marker for the early detection of prostate cancer and in other areas of prostate disease management. This particular test is a screening test only and is not intended to provide serial monitoring. If serial monitoring is required, please follow your care provider’s order for PSA testing. of prostate disease management. This particular test is a screening test only and is not intended to provide serial monitoring. If serial monitoring is required, please follow your care provider’s order for PSA testing.
Vitamin D, 25 Hydoxy
Vitamin D, 25 Hydroxy
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is found in very few foods. Therefore, it is added to milk and is a popular over-the-counter supplement. Vitamin D is produced in the body only through sun exposure and is a necessary substance for building strong bones by helping the body take in calcium. Test your Vitamin D levels at Wyoming Health Fairs then check with your care provider to determine if a supplement is needed.
Vitamin B-12 is a water-soluble vitamin necessary for brain development, nerve function, blood cell formation and many other organ systems. A low level of B12 can cause abnormal nerve sensation (neuropathy) and may be caused by pernicious anemia which is a serious disease that is found primarily in older adults.
Men's Testosterone, Total
Men's Testosterone, Total
Testosterone is a hormone that stimulates development of male secondary sexual characteristics. It is produced primarily in the testes, but also in woman produced by the ovaries and adrenal glands. This test measures the testosterone at the higher levels found in men.
Women's Testosterone, Total
Women's Testosterone, Total
Testosterone belongs to a class of male hormones called androgens but women also have testosterone. Relatively small quantities of testosterone are released into the bloodstream of women by the ovaries and adrenal glands. The women’s testosterone test provides the sensitivity and specificity required for the assessment of the lower testosterone levels found in women.
Thyroid Panel 1
Thyroid Panel 1
T3 Uptake: an indirect measure of the quantity of thyroxine binding proteins in the blood. It is directly proportional to the degree of saturation of the binding proteins by Thyroxine. Total T4 (Total Thyroxine) is a measurement of the bound and unbound T4. Free Thyroxine Index: Estimates the amount of circulating Free Thyroxine (free Thyroxine index) using a calculation based on the Total T4 and the T3 Uptake. This is an older test that some care providers prefer. If there is uncertainty about which thyroid panel to order, check with your provider.
Thyroid Panel 2
Thyroid Panel 2
Direct measurement of Free T4 (Thyroxine) and Free T3 (Tri iodothyronine) Most hormones are carried in the blood bound to proteins. When hormones are circulating in the blood bound to proteins, they are not readily available to the cells. T3 and T4, the primary thyroid hormones, are only useable (active) when they are free of their protein carriers. Thus, a measurement of the Free T3 and Free T4 can provide a more accurate assessment of thyroid function.
The rT3 level tends to follow the T4 level: low in hypothyroidism and high in hyperthyroidism. Additionally, increased levels of rT3 have been observed in starvation, anorexia nervosa, severe trauma and hemorrhagic shock, hepatic dysfunction, postoperative states, severe infection, and in burn patients
Thyroid peroxidase (TPO), an enzyme normally found in the thyroid gland, plays an important role in the production of thyroid hormones. A TPO antibody test detects antibodies against TPO in the blood. The presence of TPO antibodies in your blood suggests that the cause of thyroid disease is an autoimmune disorder, such as Hashimoto’s disease or Graves’ disease. In autoimmune disorders, your immune system makes antibodies that mistakenly attack normal tissue. Antibodies that attack the thyroid gland cause inflammation and impaired function of the thyroid. Some people with TPO antibodies may not have thyroid disease. However, the presence of TPO antibodies may increase the risk of future thyroid disorders. If you have normal thyroid function with TPO antibodies, your doctor may recommend periodic checkups to watch for future thyroid problems. Test also includes Thyroglobulin Antibodies.
RA (Rheumatold Arthritis) Profile
RA (Rheumatold Arthritis) Profile
In general, the RA Profile is a set of labs that test for inflammation caused by infection, autoimmune and other disorders in the body and must be evaluated in light of a physical examination and your symptoms. Symptoms of inflammation anywhere in the body include pain, swelling, heat, and redness. The following labs test for inflammation or infection in the body, particularly but not limited to the joints. The following is a breakdown of the tests that comprise the profile.
C-reactive Protein - Tests for the early stages of inflammatory diseases, infections or other inflammatory disorders.
Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide (CCP) Antibodies - The presence of CCP Antibodies when considered in conjunction with other lab tests and your care provider’s findings is an aid in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Approximately 70% of RA patients are positive for CCP.
Rheumatoid Factor - The majority of those with RA have a positive Rheumatoid Factor. RA is an autoimmune disease that affects children and adults and is a severe type of arthritis (infammation of the joints). Many people with inflamed and painful joints have another form of arthritis such as osteoarthritis.
Anti-nuclear Antibodies (ANA) - The antibodies that target normal proteins within the nucleus of a cell are called anti-nuclear antibodies. This test is used to detect autoimmune diseases or diseases in which the body’s own immune system attacks itself.
Hepatitis C Antibody
Hepatitis C Antibody
Tests for the presence of antibodies to Hepatitis C virus in the blood. This may indicate a past or current Hepatitis C infection which can go undetected in the body for years. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends this test once for all those born between 1945 and 1965 and for those who have injected drugs or were recipients of blood transfusions or organ transplants prior to 1992. This test is a screening test only and not intended to make a certain diagnosis of Hepatitis C infection. Further testing is required.
Blood Type - ABO RH
Blood types are determined by the presence or absence of certain antigens. There are four major blood groups determined by the presence or absence of two antigens (A and B) on the surface of red blood cells. In addition to the A and B antigens, there is a protein called the Rh factor, which can be either present (+) or absent (–), creating the 8 common blood types (A+, A-, B+, B-, O+, O-, AB+, AB-). Rh factor is particularly important in pregnancy. If the mom is Rh - and the baby is Rh + it could affect the baby. If the mom’s blood and the baby’s blood mix, the mom will start to make antibodies that can damage the baby’s red blood cells. OB/Gyn doctors will check the Rh factor of the mom during pregnancy.
C-Reactive Protein (CRP) High Sensitivity CRP
An elevated CRP is a marker of inflammation and can help to evaluate risk of cardiovascular disease, inflammatory disorders or infections. However, since CRP is indicator of a wide variety of diseases, it should not be interpreted without an evaluation by your care provider.
The A1C test result reflects your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the A1C test measures what percentage of your hemoglobin (a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen) is coated with sugar. The higher your A1C level, the poorer your blood sugar control and the higher your risk of diabetic complications. After a diabetes diagnosis, the A1C test is used to monitor your diabetes treatment plan. Since the A1C test measures your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months instead of your blood sugar level at a specific point in time, it is a better reflection of how well your diabetes treatment plan is working overall.
Ferritin is a blood cell protein that contains iron. A ferritin test helps your doctor understand how much iron your body is storing. If a ferritin test reveals that your blood ferritin level is lower than normal, it indicates your body’s iron stores are low and you have iron deficiency. If a ferritin test shows higher than normal levels, it could indicate that you have a condition that causes your body to store too much iron. It could also point to liver disease, hemochromatosis, rheumatoid arthritis, other inflammatory conditions or other disorders.
This type of screening for celiac disease (gluten-sensitive intestinal disease) looks for antibodies against gluten in your blood. Elevated levels of certain antibody proteins indicate an immune reaction to gluten. The condition is characterized by a sensitivity to gluten that causes inflammation of the small intestine.
YOU MUST BE ON A GLUTEN-CONTAINING DIET FOR ANTIBODY TESTING TO BE ACCURATE. ELIMINATING GLUTEN FROM YOUR DIET MAY CHANGE THE RESULTS OF BLOOD TESTS SO THAT THEY APPEAR TO BE NORMAL.